Russian Facings of the Napoleonic Era


Introduction

Those seeking information on the uniforms of the Russian Napoleonic army need to understand how it derives from the original sources. Nearly everything that was known came from the extensive Victorian era work by Viskovatov, in Russian and available as rare books in a handful of libraries. Periodically, enthusiasts tackled translations. Gayda and Krijitsky produced an early translation for Les Éditions de La Sabretache. Murray covered the infantry in English. Zweguintzow offered a complete compilation in French with some additional material. Falzone, Hansen, Haythornthwaite, and Nafziger continued in this vein. Conrad has eclipsed all, first by providing an exacting translation of what Viskovatov wrote rather than a compilation or paraphrase, and secondly by making it available to everyone by publishing it on the web.

The first stop for the interested, therefore, should be the http://marksrussianmilitaryhistory.info/ site. A complete scan of Viskovatov including the plates can be found at the https://www.runivers.ru/lib/book3093/ site.

The web has also been crucial in making accessible the new material coming from the Russian Federation in the last two decades. New books like those of Parkhayev, Popov, and Ulyanov, a plethora of articles in journals like Цейхгауз, and discussions in various forums, especially Russian ones, expand our knowledge. Some of this material has overturned long accepted data from Viskovatov. In particular, the early Alexandrine facings have been completely revised, and the later company distinctions likewise upset. Finally, the new works by Leonov, Belov, Popov, & Kibovsky, set a new definitive standard.

I started this page first just to capture the facing revisions. But as new discoveries continued to be announced, I have tried to make this both a quick visual reference and a comprehensive record of information supplemental or contrary to that found in Viskovatov. I hope you will find this to be a reliable second stop.

While color1 names have been carefully translated, the colors themselves are approximate and should be used with caution.

I have tried to keep the technology simple and universal. But for boring technical reasons, this page might not work with Internet Explorer. It has been developed on Chrome.


Generalities

Hairstyle

In addition to the information about queues found in Viskovatov, Ulyanov provides data on moustaches and whiskers. Officers, except in the light cavalry - Hussars, Lancers, Horse Jaegers, and Cossacks kept clean shaven lips, but, depending upon fashion, could sport extensive sideburns. The men were not constrained, but typically grenadiers would wear moustaches while musketeers and jaegers would shave.

Knapsack

Leonov, Popov, & Kibovsky, mention that in the L-g. the NCO's wore the valise over their left shoulder until March 23, 1807, unlike the men who slung it over the right. This presumably applies to the line as well.

It was planned that the greatcoat would be folded and strapped to the valise, but in practise it was much more convenient to wear it rolled, over the shoulder.

Shako rank distinctions

On the early shako, before the distribution of the 'kiver', NCOs wore a ½ vershok band of galoon in gold or silver according to branch. Officer shakos were presumably similar.2

Officer's effects

After October 20, 1799 crimson silk was added to the black and orange silk found in officer's sashes, sword knots, and hat tassels. This was recinded February 27, 1803.

Infantry

Line Regiments December 19, 1796 - June 8, 1802

REGIMENT3MITERFACINGBUTTON LACE4VEST,
GLOVES,
WINTER
PANTS
SHAFTS,
STAFFS,
DRUM
STICKS5
OTHER
METALBAGBANDCOLLARLAPELSCUFFSTroopOfficers
Leib-grenadier
scarlet
scarletscarletscarletscarletgold galloongoldwhitestraw7 plate, hat
flank companies6
yellow
red
Astrakhan
d.apricot
d.greend.apricotd.apricotd.apricotwhitesilver, embroideredwhitewhiteplate8
Caucasus
d.maroon
d.greenmaroonmaroonmaroonwhite, 2 stripes silver, 2 бити stripes,
purl
whitewhite
Kherson
l.violet
d.greenl.violetl.violetl.violetwhite, violet stripes
silver, pattern as troop's
of violet silk
strawblack
Kiev
scarlet
d.greennonenonescarletyellowgoldstrawwhite
Little Russia
l.azure
d.greenl.azurel.azurel.azureyellowgoldstrawblack
Moscow9
brick
d.greenbrickbrickbrickwhitesilvercitronblack10plate8, hat11, cuff
c. 1799
cerise
citron
c. 1800-1
brick
white
Pavlovsk12
red
d.greenredredredyellowgold, битиwhiteblack13plate, hilt14, tuft15
c. 1799
orange
orangeorangeorange
Phanagoria
l.iron
d.greenironironiron
white, snake between
2 lines all black
silver, pattern as troop's
of black silk
whitewhite
St. Petersburg9
d.rose
d.greend.rosenoned.rosewhite, rose tracery silver, rose tracery strawwhite
straw
Siberia
orange
d.greenorangeorangeorangered goldwhitewhite
Taurida
orange
d.greenorangeorangeorangewhite silver, embroideredwhitestrawplate
Yekaterinoslav
yellow
d.greennonenoneyellowwhitegold, битиstrawstraw
c. 1797-816yellow
Aleksopol
camel
d.greencamelnonecamelwhite silver whiteblack
Apsheron
red
d.greennonenoneredwhitegoldwhiteblack
c. 1797-816
white
Archangel17
gray
d.greengraygraygraywhite, black tracerysilverstrawblack7
Azov
white
d.greenwhitewhitewhiteyellowgoldwhitestraw
Belev
d.green
d.greend.greend.greend.greenyellow, red circles silver whitecoffee
Belozersk
straw
d.greenstrawstrawstrawwhitesilverwhiteblack
Bryansk
orange
d.greenorangenoneorangeyellow gold, битиwhitecoffee
Butyrki
bisque
d.greenbisquebisquebisquewhite, tracerysilver, битиwhiteblack
Chernigov
d.rose
d.greennonenoned.rosebigaradegoldwhiteblackhat(?)11
Dnieper
coffee
d.greencoffeecoffeecoffeewhite silverwhitestraw
Kabarda
red
d.greennonenoneredyellow gold whitewhite
Kazan
yellow
d.greennonenoneyellowyellowgold, битиwhitestraw
Kexholm
b.rose
d.greenb.roseb.roseb.roseyellow gold, бити whitecoffee7
Miller-1 (Kolyvan)
yellow
yellowapple greennoneapple greenwhite, l.green tracerysilverwhitewhite
Kozlov
d.rose
d.greend.rosed.rosed.rosewhite silver, embroidered whitewhiteplate18
Kursk
white
d.greenwhitewhitewhitewhitesilver, битиwhiteblack
Ladoga
brown
d.greenbrownbrownbrownwhite, brown edges silver, brown silk edges whiteblack
Senate (Lithuania)
red
yellowrednoneredwhite
at button end,
silver, embroidered
yellowblackplate, lace, cuff
Moscow
d.blue
d.greend.blued.blued.blueyellow gold strawwhite
Murom
d.blue
d.greend.blued.blued.bluewhitegold, битиwhitecoffee
c. 1797-816d.blue
Narva
red
d.greennoneredredwhite silver strawwhite
Nasheburg17
gray
d.greengraygraygraywhite silver, бити whitecoffee
Pavlutsky19 (Navaginka)
white
whiteorangenoneorangeyellow goldyellowstraw
Neva
red
d.greennoneredredyellow gold,
purl
whiteblack
New Ingermanland
red
d.greenscarletnonescarletcheckered bigarade and blackcheckered gold and black silkwhitecoffee
Nizhni Novgorod20
d.rose
d.greend.rosed.rosed.rosewhitesilver, битиstraw20coffee
Nizov
red
d.greennoneredredyellow, 2 black stripesgold, 2 stripes, битиwhitewhite
Novgorod
b.apricot
d.greenb.apricotb.apricotb.apricotyellowgold, 2 бити stripeswhitewhite
Old Ingermanland19
b.camel
d.greenb.camelb.camelb.camelyellowgold, бити center stripewhitewhite
Brandt19 (Olonets)
straw
strawl.greennonel.greenwhite, l.green stripesgoldwhitewhite
Orel
white
d.greennonewhitewhitewhite, green stripes silver, green stripes on edgesstrawstraw
Perm
sapphire
d.greensapphiresapphiresapphireyellow gold, бити whiteblack13
Polotsk
l.green
d.greenl.greenl.greenl.greenwhitesilver, битиwhiteblack
Marklovsky-1 (Poltava)
azure
azurewhitenonewhitewhite gold yellowwhite
Pskov
apple green
d.greenapple greenapple greenapple greenyellow gold, битиwhitestraw
Reval
cerise
d.greencerisecerisecerisewhite silver, бити strawwhite
Rostov
red
d.greenrednoneredyellow, flecked red gold, flecked red, бити whitecoffee
Ryazan
l.crimson
d.greenl.crimsonl.crimsonl.crimson at button end, white at button end, silverwhitewhite
Ryazhsk
apple green
d.greenapple greenapple greenapple greenyellow gold, бити whiteblack
Rylsk
flame
d.greenflameflameflamewhite, checkeredsilver, checkered битиwhitecoffee
Leitner19 (Saratov)
white
whiteorangenoneorangewhitesilveryellowblack13
Schlüsselburg
apple green
d.greenapple greenapple greenapple greenwhitesilver, битиwhiteblack
Selenginsk
steel blue
d.greennonesteel bluesteel blueyellowgold, битиstrawblack
Sevastopol
sand
d.greensandsandsandwhite, azure tracery goldwhiteblack
Sievsk
white
d.greennonenonewhiteyellowgold, embroidered whiteblack
Shirvan
straw
d.greenstrawnonestrawwhite silver strawwhite
Smolensk
puce
d.greenpucepucepucewhitesilverstrawstraw
Sofiya
red
d.greenredredredred, black and yellow tracery
red silk, black and
gold silk embroidery
whitecoffee
Stary Oskol
yellow
d.greennonenonerednonewhitewhitecuff
from 179716
white
red
Suzdal
red
d.greennonenoneredwhite, red edgessilver, red edgeswhitestraw
Tambov
celadon
d.greenceladonceladonceladonwhitegold, битиwhiteblack
from 179716
straw
straw
Arkharov-120 (Tenginka)
l.rose
l.rosel.rosel.rosel.rosewhitesilver, битиwhitecoffeeplate, hilt14
Tiflis
sand
d.greensandnonesandwhitesilver, битиstrawblack
Tobolsk
l.azure
d.greenl.azurel.azurel.azurewhite, azure tracery silver, azure tracery whitewhite
Tomsk
crimson
d.greencrimsonnonecrimsonyellow, black tracery gold, black silk tracery strawcoffee
Troitsk
l.violet
d.greenl.violetl.violetl.violetstraw, yellow lines and circles gold, битиwhitestraw
Tula
red
d.greenrednoneredyellow gold, бити strawcoffeecuff
Ufa
steel blue
d.greensteel bluesteel bluesteel bluewhite silverwhiteblack
Uglich
red
d.greenredredredwhitesilverwhitestraw
Berg19 (Ukraine)
azure
azurewhitenonewhitewhitesilveryellowblack13
Velikiye Luki
red
d.greenredredredyellow gold,
purl
whiteblack
Viborg
yellow
d.greenyellowyellowyellowyellow gold, битиwhitecoffee
Vitebsk
pale rose
d.greenpale rosepale rosepale roseyellow gold strawwhite
Vladimir
red
d.greenredredredyellow, red edgesgoldwhitewhitecuff,hat(?)11
Voronezh
straw
d.greenstrawstrawstrawyellowgold, битиwhitewhite
Vyatka
sapphire
d.greensapphirenonesapphirewhitesilverstrawcoffee
Yaroslavl
crimson
d.greencrimsonnonecrimsonwhitesilverwhitestraw7
Yekaterinburg
puce
d.greenpucenonepuceyellow gold whitecoffee
Yelets
crimson
d.greencrimsoncrimsoncrimsonyellow, 2 wide green stripesgold, pattern like menwhiteblackplate
Marine battalionsper battalionredredredper battalionwhitestraw?turnbacks

Gold or silver metal color, for buttons and miter plates, is combined with the regimental name for compactness. The tape used to pipe the cap bags, of various combinations of yellow, white, red, black, green, silver, etc. is represented by the border of the bag cell.

The symbol indicates a tassel on the buttonhole loop, of the illustrated colors.

STOCK and CRAVAT

Regt.Moscow
Grenadiers
SenateOthers
Troopblackblackred
Officersblackblackwhite

AIGUILLETTE

Regt.Leib-grenadierSenate
Troop
yellow
silver & white
Officers
gold
silver

Battalion and Company Colors

Under Paul I, line regiments continued to consist of 2 battalions. Grenadier battalions had 5 companies of fusiliers, and 1 of grenadiers. These were referred to as grenadiers and flank grenadiers in the all grenadier Leib-grenadier, and these terms may have been used informally with the other grenadier regiments. Musketeer battalions had 5 companies of musketeers, and 1 company of grenadiers.

Paul I Infantry Swordknots & Pompons21

1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. 4th coy. 5th coy. Gren. coy
First
battalion
Second
battalion
(5st coy.
NCO)
Pompon (tuft) & Tassels
(ex: Kabarda)
First
battalion
Second
battalion
NCO

The nut and ruff of the swordknot were in company colors; The body in battalion color.
NCO's swordknot were the same, but with a different ruff of mixed white, black, and orange yarns, and the interior fringe threads were orange and black.

The center and outside of the pompon took the colors of the regiment, reversed for the second battalion.22 Hat tassels were similarly patterned, and the drawstring mixed the same colors.

Marine Battalions

1st Admiralty2d Admiralty1st Fleet2d Fleet3d Fleet
Maj. GavrilovLt. Col. MertensMaj. ZhegalovMaj. SaltykovMaj. Herzenberg
red
azure
white
blue
yellow
4th Fleet5th Fleet6th Fleet7th Fleet8th Fleet9th Fleet (1797)
Maj. GorokhovMaj. TitovMaj. KachalovMaj. Chaplin-1Maj. Chaplin-2Maj. Strelnikov
violet
orange
green
black
gray
purple

The Marine battalions adopted grenadier uniforms, presumably including the red stock and straw woodwork, and, by Jan. 12, 1798, the 5 fusilier and 1 flank grenadier company organization. Lining and turnbacks were white. The battalion color distinguished the miter bag (piped as indicated) and band and the troop's buttonhole loops. The officer's loops were per battalion, but as officer's loops were invariably metallic, the meaning is unclear.


Combined Grenadier Battalions

On December 24, 1797, the two grenadier companies of each regiment were paired with another two to form 4 company battalions named after their commanders. The Caucasus Grenadiers, Yekaterinburg, and Selenginsk regiments retained their grenadiers. The Leib-grenadiers, whose flank grenadiers, if they had them, were part of the battalions, likewise did not combine. The garrison regiments appear to have formed 4 company battalions as well, although not all participated.

Combined Grenadier Battalions - end of 1798

St. Petersburg Inspection
Maj. GinzelArkharov-1 & Kexholm
Maj. MitushinPavlovsk Gren. & Belozersk
Maj. EricssonYelets & Ryazan
Maj. BogdanovKronstadt Gn.
Maj. KozlovskySt. Petersburg Gn. & Narva Gn.
Moscow Inspection
Maj. ShapskyOld Ingermanland & Ryazsk
Col. Arsenyev,
then Ogarev
Kozlov & Schlüsselburg
Col. Count RazumovskyAstrakhan Gren. & Yaroslavl
Maj. NagelVyborg & Nasheburg
Maj. LukashevichPavlutsky & Miller-1
Maj. BudbergBerg & Leitner
Col. Prince TsitsianovBrandt & Marklovsky-1
Livonia Inspection
Col. StrickSt. Petersburg Gren. & Taurida Gren.
Col. TimofeyevDnieper & Tobolsk
Col. Steinheil,
then Maj. Rakhmanov
Reval & Sievsk
Maj. OsipovSofiya & Chernigov
Maj. StempelRiga Gn.
Maj. VikhorstReval Gn. & Rogervik Gn.
Lt. Col. HermeierDünamünde Gn., Arensburg Gn.,
Pernau Gn., & Dünaburg Gn.
Smolensk Inspection
Lt. Col. PetrovskyRostov & Nizov
Col. SelekhovSmolensk & Kura
Col. TreubluthPolotsk & Perm
Col. Brezman,
then Prince Gurieli
Phanagoria Gren. & Voronezh
Col. LomonosovMoscow Gren. & Yekaterinoslav Gren.
Lithuania Inspection
Lt. Col. DendryginApsheron & Murom
Lt. Col. SanayevButyrki & Archangel
Maj. KaleminTambov & Tula
Lt. Col. PotapovStary Oskol & Pskov
Finland Inspection
Col. de GervaisVelikiye Luki & Neva
Lt. Col. BeckVyborg Gn.
Lt. Col. MichurinRochensalm Gn. & Kexholm Gn.
Maj. BulyginFredrikshamn Gn., Villmanstrand Gn., & Nyslott Gn.
Ukraine Inspection
Lt. Col. ShirkovLittle Russia Gren. & Kiev Gren.
Col. RautensternNarva & Moscow
Lt. Col. SieversUglich & Bryansk
Dniester Inspection
Maj. UdomSiberia Gren. & Kherson Gren.
Lt. Col. StellingNew Ingermanland & Vladimir
Maj. PlamenkovAzov & Orel
Lt. Col. BudbergNovgorod & Nizhni Novgorod
Maj. ShengelidzeVyatka & Alexopol
Taurida Inspection
Lt. Col. NazimovSevastopol & Vitebsk
Maj. TarasovTroitsk & Belev
Lt. Col. LubergSevastopol Gn.23, Nikolayevsk Gn., & Perekop Gn.
Caucasus Inspection
Lt. Col. LebedevSuzdal & Tiflis
Maj. ZholobovKazan & Kabarda
Maj. StepanovTaganrog Gn.23, Kizlyar Gn., & Mozdok Gn.
Orenburg Inspection
Lt. Col. GuryevRylsk & Ufa
Maj. LebyadnikovOrenburg Gn.
Lt. Col. PaskinKazan Gn. & Saratov Gn.24
Maj. ZhulovOrsk Gn., Zverinogolovskoye Gn., Kizel Gn.,
Verkhne-Uralsk Gn., & Troitsk Gn.
Siberia Inspection
Maj. Count IvelichTomsk & Shirvan
Maj. SidorovOmsk Gn., Tomsk Gn., & Semipalatinsk Gn.



Line Regiments June 8, 1802 - November 19, 1807

Inspection - miter bag, collar, cuffsRegimental - shoulder straps, miter head band, pompon center
redwhiteyellowl.crimson25turquoiserosel.greengraypurplebluestraworange
St. PetersburgredLeib-grenadier26,27Pavlovsk Gr.KexholmBelozersk28YeletsTenginka29Lithuaniad.green
Petrovsk33
SmolenskwhiteMoscow Gr.27Phanagoria Gr.PermVoronezhUglichKurskPolotsk
FinlandyellowVelikiye Luki Ryazan Neva
Kievl.crimsonMoscow28NovgorodVyatkaNarvaButyrkiKolyvan29Poltavaviolet
LivoniaturquoiseSt. Petersburg
Gr.
Taurida Gr.27ChernigovTobolskSievskDnieperRevalSofiyaKoporye33
azureKaluga
UkraineroseKiev Gr.27,28Little Russia Gr.27SmolenskBryansk30Galich33
Estoniad.green
Lithuanial.greenYekaterinoslav Gr.PskovRostovMuromArchangelNizovTulaVolhynia33Kostroma
Mogilev
SiberiagrayShirvanTomskSelenginsk
Dniester34purpleSiberia Gr.Kherson Gr.Nizhni NovgorodVladimir28YaroslavlLadogaAleksopolKozlovNew IngermanlandCrimea
 
d.green, piped red/redNizhni
Novgorod
VladimirYaroslavlAleksopolKozlovNew IngermanlandCrimeaOdessa
Caucasus35blueCaucasus Gr.KazanSuzdalTiflisKabardaVologda
SevastopolVologdaSaratov
OrenburgcamelRylskUfaYekaterinburg
MoscoworangeAstrakhan Gr.27,28SchlüsselburgNasheburgTambov30OrelStary Oskol31NavaginkaUkraineSaratov35Olonets
Kura
BreststrawAzovViborgOld Ingermanland28ApsheronRyazhskPodoliaVilnaPenza
Crimea34bisqueTroitskVitebskBelev28Sevastopol32,35
Siberia Gr.Kherson Gr.TroitskVitebskLadogaBelev
Marineswhite361st batt.2d batt.3d batt.4th batt.5th batt.6th batt.7th batt.8th batt.9th batt.10th batt.11th batt.12th batt.
d.green, piped white371st2d3dCaspian batt.4th


Woodwork

Possibly black38 for new units.
RegimentWoodwork
Galichblack
Koporyeblack
Podoliablack
Volhyniablack
Vologdablack
Petrovskwhite
Mogilevcoffee

Stock
black

Battalion and Company Colors

On May 12, 1802 all line regiments were formed into 3 battalions each of 4 companies. The first battalion of Grenadier and Musketeer regiments were grenadiers. The second and third were fusiliers or musketeers, respectively. As before, the Leib-grenadier battalions were all grenadiers. On May 11, 1803 the marine battalions were organized into 3 battalion regiments. Although organized like Musketeer regiments, they retained elite grenadier privileges.

Alexander I Infantry Pompon & Swordknots21

battalion Pompon
(ex: Koporye)
1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. 4th coy.
first
(grenadier)
second
third
NCO

The nut and ruff of the swordknot were in company colors; The body in battalion color.
NCO's swordknot were the same, but with a different ruff including black and orange yarns, and the interior fringe threads were orange and black.

The center of the pompon took the color of the regiment (or l.green where clashing).

Retention of Miters

The grenadiers and fusiliers were ordered to replace their miters with shakos on Feb. 25, 1805. Austerlitz and the Polish campaign soon followed, and it is known that some regiments fought wearing their miters, but information is scarce.

New Regiments December 12, 1806

collarcuffscuff flaps40shoulder strapswoodwork41
Brestwhiteredredyellowstraw
Kremenchugyellowredredyellowcoffee
Minskazureredredwhiteblack
Nyslottgreen42redredwhitestraw
Yakutskwhite43redd.greenwhitewhite
Okhotskazureazure_bluesredyellowcoffee44
Kamchatka45whitewhitewhiteredstraw
Mingreliayellowyellowredredcoffee
Villmanstrandredredredwhite, piped redwhite
Libauazureredredredwhite
Pernauwhiteredwhiteazure?46

Presumably, the pompon center continued to match the shoulder straps for these new regiments.


Jaeger Regiments

December 19, 1796June 8, 1802 - November 19, 1807
REGIMENTFACINGS
MetalCollar, Cuff,
& Aiguillette
1st Jaeger47straw
2d Jaegerred
3d Jaegerpuce
4th Jaegerflame
5th Jaegerviolet
6th Jaegerorange
7th Jaegerbrick
8th Jaegerwhite
9th Jaegeryellow48
10th Jaegerbrown
11th Jaegerbisque
12th Jaegercoffee
13th Jaegerl.green
14th Jaegerb.rose
15th Jaegerturquoise
16th Jaegerl.azure
17th Jaegerd.apricot
18th Jaegerblue
19th Jaegerblack
20th Jaegercrimson
 
REGIMENTFACINGS
MetalCollar, Cuff, Piping,
& Pompon center
1st Jaegerstraw25
2d Jaegerrose
3d Jaegerred
4th Jaegergray
5th Jaegerturquoise
6th Jaegerflame25
7th Jaegerwhite
8th Jaegerblue
9th Jaegeryellow
10th Jaegerblack
11th Jaegerapricot25
12th Jaegerl.crimson25
13th Jaegerbisque25
14th Jaegermaroon
15th Jaeger35l.iron
16th Jaegercamel
17th Jaegerviolet
18th Jaegerbrown
19th Jaegerpurple
REGIMENTFACINGS49
MetalCollar & Cuff
20th Jaegerd.green
21st Jaegerred, piped white
22d Jaegerwhite, piped red
23d Jaegerorange,25 piped white
24th Jaegerl.green, piped azure
25th Jaegerstraw,25 piped red
26th Jaegerblue, piped red
MetalCollarCuff &
Piping
27th Jaegerpiped redred
28th Jaegerpiped
yellow
yellow
29th Jaegerpiped
turquoise
turquoise
30th Jaegerpiped whitewhite
31st Jaegerpiped
crimson
crimson25
32d Jaegerpiped blackblack

Pompons (ex: 10th Jaeger)

1st. batt. 2d. batt. 3d. batt. NCO

The center of the pompon took the color of the regiment (or l.green where clashing).

StockWood
blackblack

Details

Organization

Jaeger battalions had 5 companies of jaegers without additional grenadier companies, and the regiments formed after May 29, 1797 had 2 battalions. On May 12, 1802 they were formed into 3 battalions each of 4 companies, all jaegers. Initially their establishment was about ¾ of a Line unit, but after Austerlitz they were brought up to equal numbers.

Greatcoat

Some regiments retained d.green greatcoats in 1802 as their term had not expired. This included the 3d Jaeger, whose coats were renewed at that time, but who could not obtain sufficient stores of gray cloth.

Drums

The drums were a little smaller than the musketeers. Some fraction of the drums, recycled from dragoon drums in the arsenals, displayed an embossed double-headed eagle cartouche on the front.

Round "top hat"

The distinctive round hat, with cylindrical crown and front and rear visors, was only provided to the 1st, 4th, 7th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 18th, and 19th Jaegers, at the beginning of 1803. It was replaced by the same cloth and straw shako used by the Musketeers, Aug. 15, 1803. During its brief tenure, it did not display an NCO band on the crown.

The cartridge pouch

Jaegers used a front pouch under Paul I. A waistbelt bandoleer was introduced in 1802. The front pouch was re-introduced late 1806, perhaps mostly for the 27th to 32d Jaeger.50

Side arms

The men were equiped with either musket and bayonet or, 12 per company, with rifle and dirk. The NCO's were also armed with rifle and dirk. Acc. Leonov, Popov, & Kibovsky, the (line and guard) drummers, musicians, and non-combatant NCO's all carried the dirk, in contradiction to Viskovatov who says the drummers were armed with infantry swords.


Garrison Regiments February 27, 1797 - March 16, 1800

REGIMENTMITERSTOCKFACINGBUTTON LACE4VEST,
GLOVES,
WINTER
PANTS
SHAFTS,
STAFFS,
DRUM
STICKS5
OTHER
METALBAGBANDCOLLARLAPELSCUFFSTroopOfficers
Campaign garrisons
Archangel
orange
orangeredblackblackblackwhitesilver, битиwhiteblack
Dünamünde
straw
orangerednonenoneorangeyellowgold, битиstrawwhite
Fredrikshamn19
d.green
redredturquoiseturquoiseturquoisewhitesilver, битиwhitewhite
Irkutsk19
straw
strawredpucepucepucewhite, puce stripesilver, puce stripestrawblack
Kazan19
l.green
d.greenredl.greenl.greenl.greenyellowgoldwhiteblack
Kiev
orange
orangeblackrednoneredwhitesilverstrawstrawhat, cuff
Moscowredturquoiseturquoiseturquoiseyellowgold, битиwhitewhite
Nikolayevsk
red
bluerednonewhitewhitemixed white & rosemixed silver & rose, embroideredwhitewhite
Nizhne-Kamchatka51
straw
strawredpucepucepucewhitesilverstrawwhite
Orenburg19
orange
orangerednonenonecrimsonwhite, crimson edgessilver, crimson edgeswhiteblack
Reval19
white
turquoiserednonenoneturquoiseyellowgold, битиwhitestraw
Riga
orange
orangerednonenoneorangeyellowgold, битиwhiteblack
Rochensalm19
white
orangeredvioletnonevioletwhitesilver, embroideredwhitecoffeecuff
Rogervik
d.green
strawrednonenoneturquoiseyellowgold, битиstrawcoffee
St. Petersburg
white
d.greenredwhitewhitewhitewhite, 3 rows red tracerynonewhiteblack13lace
Seleginsk19
straw
d.greenblacknonenonegreenyellowgold, битиstrawstrawhat, cuff
Sevastopol19
white
redredvioletnonevioletyellowgold, embroideredwhitewhite
Smolensk19
black
redredstrawstrawstrawyellowgold, битиstrawwhite
Taganrog
red
redredl.azurenonel.azurewhitesilver, azure tracerystrawstraw
Tobolskredpucepucepucewhite, puce stripesilver, puce stripestrawcoffee
Vyborg
d.green
whiterednonenonegreencheckered white & greencheckered silver & greenwhitestraw
Interior garrisons
Aleksandrovblackmaroonmaroonmaroond.greenblack
Arensburg
straw
roseredd.bluenoned.blued.greenstraw13
Astrakhanblacknonenonesandd.greenblack
Azovblackpale rosepale rosepale rosed.greenblack
Bakhmutblacknonenonel.violetd.greenstraw
Nikitinsk. then Balaklavablacksandsandsandd.greenstraw
Biysk
d.blue
d.blueblackblueblueblued.greenwhite
Dmitriyevredwhitewhitewhited.greenstraw
Dünaburg
orange
whiteredorangenoneoranged.greenstraw
Kexholm
l.green
l.greenredpucenonepuced.greenstraw13
Elizavetgradsk, then Khersonredd.cameld.cameld.cameld.greenwhite
Kizel 19
straw
d.greenblacknonenonestrawd.greenwhite
Kizlyar19
red
yellowblacknoneredredd.greenblack
Kronstadt19
azure
d.greenredstrawstrawstrawd.greencoffeehilt
Rogachev, then Mogilevblacknoneb.sapphireb.sapphired.greenwhite
Mozdok
d.blue
redblacknonenonemaroond.greenblack
Narva
red
redredredredredd.greenwhite
Nizhni Novgorodredblackblackblackd.greenwhite
Novgorodredstrawnonestrawd.greenblack13
Nyslott
azure
azureredturquoiseturquoiseturquoised.greenstraw
Omsk
crimson
d.greenblackcrimsoncrimsoncrimsond.greenwhite
Ozerni, then Orsk
l.green
whiteblacknonenonepuced.greenstraw
Perekop
orange
orangeblackmaroonnonemaroond.greenblack
Pernau
azure
d.greenrednonecoffeecoffeed.greencoffee
Petropalovsk
red
blueblacknonenoneblued.greenstraw
Petrovskblackd.greend.greend.greend.greenwhite
Polotskredpucepucepuced.greenwhite
Senno, then Pskovredl.ironnonel.irond.greenblack
Saratov19,24
red
redrednonestrawstrawd.greenstraw
Schlüsselburg19
apple green
d.greenblackblackblackblackd.greenwhitecuff
Semipalatinsk
orange
orangeblackapricotnoneapricotd.greenblack
Simbirskblacknonewhitewhited.greenstraw13
Stary Bykhovredl.ironl.ironl.irond.greenblack
Stavropolblackyellownoneyellowd.greencoffee
Kirilovsk, then Sudakblackroseroserosed.greenwhite
Tambovredrednoneredd.greenstraw
Tomsk19
crimson
d.greenblacknonenonesteel blued.greencoffee
Troitsk
white
azureblacknonenonewhited.greenblack
Tsaritsynrednonenoneyellowd.greenwhite
Tverblackyellowyellowyellowd.greenblack
Verkhne-Uralsk
crimson
orangeblackpucepucepuced.greenwhite
Villmandstrand19
white
?rednonenoneredd.greenwhite
Vitebskrednonenonesapphired.greenstraw
Vladimirredgraygraygrayd.greenblack13
Voronezhredwhitenonewhited.greenstraw
Zverinogolovskoye
l.green
d.greenblackl.greenl.greenl.greend.greenblack

On October 11, 1797 all interior garrison units took the black stock.

Garrison battalions consisted of 5 companies of musketeers, with an additional company - grenadier in the campaign garrisons, and invalid in the interior garrisons. However, the grenadier companies were not established until authorized, the Moscow Garrison never receiving one, the Tobolsk Garrison reclassified as an interior garrison, and a number of interior garrisons (those listed with miters) reclassified as campaign garrisons. At the same time, invalid companies remained mostly with the original interior garrisons, but could be found with some of the campaign garrisons as well.

Garrison Regiments March 16, 1800 - June 8, 1802

REGIMENTSTOCKFACINGCONSTITUENT UNITSVEST,
GLOVES,
WINTER
PANTS
SHAFTS,
STAFFS,
DRUM
STICKS
OTHER
METALCOLLARLAPELSCUFFS
BolotnikovblackvioletnonevioletRochensalm with Arensburgwhitecoffeecuff
BulgakovblacknonenoneorangeRigawhiteblack
Baron WrangelblacknonenonegreenVyborg with Fredrikshamnwhitestraw
Prince VyazemskyblacknonewhitewhiteNikolayevsk with Perekop, Sevastopol52whitewhite
Gogel-1blackl.greenl.greenl.greenZverinogolovskoye with Kizel, Orsk, Saratovwhiteblack
Count de Castro-LacerdablacknonenoneturquoiseReval with Pernauwhitestraw
LebedevblacknonenonecrimsonOrenburg with Voronezh, Tambovwhiteblack
LezzanoblackpucepucepuceIrkutsk with Selenginskwhiteblack
Lieven-1blackblackblackblackArchangel with Vladimir, Nizhni Novgorodwhiteblack
Lvov-1blacknonenonesandAstrakhan with Simbirsk, Tsaritsyn52whiteblack
LutovblacknonepucepuceVerkhne-Uralsk with Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk, Troitskwhitewhitecuff
Marklovsky-2blackyellowyellowyellowTver with Narva52, Novgorod, Pskovwhiteblack
MasséblackrednoneredKiev with Khersonwhitestrawcuff
Olvintsevblackpale rosepale rosepale roseAzov with Dmitriyev, Taganrog52whiteblack
PlutalovblackblackblackblackSchlüsselburg with Villmandstrand, Kexholm, Nyslottwhitewhitecuff
Pushchin-1blackl.greenl.greenl.greenKazan with Tobolskwhiteblack
RautensternblackstrawstrawstrawSmolensk with Vitebsk, Dünamünde, Mogilevwhitewhite
RetyunskyblackcrimsoncrimsoncrimsonOmsk with Biysk, Zhelezinka, Tomskwhitewhite
SomovblackpucenonepuceNizhne-Kamchatkawhitewhite
UkolovblackstrawstrawstrawKronstadtwhitecoffee
von ReichenbergblackturquoiseturquoiseturquoiseMoscowwhitewhite
GogolevblacksandsandsandBalaklava (at Corfu)d.greenstraw

Only the Archangel, Kronstadt, Omsk, Tomsk, and Nizhne-Kamchatka garrisons retained their grenadier companies53, wearing their previous miters.

Garrison Regiments June 8, 1802 - April 2, 180854

Inspection - collar, cuffsRegimental - shoulder straps, pompon center
redwhiteyellowl.crimsonturquoiserosel.greengraypurplebluecamelorangestrawblack
St.Petersburgred7 Kronstadt9 Schlüsselburg8 Narva10 Novgorod11 PskovPetrozavodsk55
Smolenskwhite46 Smolensk45 Vitebsk44 Mogilev
Finlandyellow12 Viborg13 Fredrikshamn15 Villmandstrand16 Kexholm17 Nyslott14 RochensalmKymmenegard55
Kievl.crimson43 Kiev42 Yekaterinoslav56
Livoniaturquoise1 Riga4 Pernau3 Dünamünde2 Reval255 Arensburg6 Mitau55
Lithuanial.green48 Grodno49 Vilna47 Minsk
Siberiagray70 Irkutsk71 Selenginsk69 Tobolsk64 Omsk65 Petrovsk66 Semipalatinsk67 Biysk72 Kamchatka (was Nizhne-Kamchatka)68 Zhelezinka63 Tara (renamed Tomsk)
Dniester34purple40 Kherson41 Ochakov (was Nilolayevsk)Kamenets-Podolsk55
d.green, piped red/red
Caucasusblue31 Astrakhan36 Dmitriyev30 Tsaritsyn35 Azov37 Taganrog32 Kizlyar33 Mozdok34 Vladikavkaz
Orenburgcamel18 Kazan53 Orenburg54 Kizel55 Verkhne-Uralsk56 Troitsk57 Zverinogolovskoye58 Orsk27 Simbirsk52 Ufa23 Vyatka59 1st Orenburg60 2d Orenburg61 3d Orenburg62 4th Orenburg
Moscoworange19 Moscow28 Voronezh29 Saratov50 Tambov26 Archangel21 Vladimir22 Nizhni Novgorod20 Tver25 Vologda24 Veliki Ustyug51 Penza
Crimea34bisque38 Perekop39 Akhtiar (was Sevastopol)
40 Kherson38 Perekop39 Akhtiar (was Sevastopol)41 Ochakov (was Nilolayevsk)

Garrison battalions were usually of 4 musketeer companies, with Garrison regiments varying from 2 to 4 battalions. And Kamchatka had a unique 6 company organization, one of which was a marine company.

Field (underlined in tables) and interior establishments57 continued to be distinct. Battalions on internal establishment included an invalid company.

New and Changed Establishments

Akkerman Aland Anapi? Archangel  Mar. 31, 1802 Baku Bender Bobruisk
Derbent Dünaburg Hango Kazan  1804 Kertch-Yekinale Khotin Kizlyar  Jan. 12, 1808
Mozdok  June 2, 1807 Poti Smolensk  c. 1802-7 Sveaborg Tver  Jan. 22, 1810 Vladikavkaz  Apr. 19, 1804 Ural

Details

Sword belts

The March 1808 order to wear the swordbelt over the shoulder was literally that. The belt was noticeably narrower than the newly manufactured crossbelts used by the line.

Facing changes

On April 2, 1808, cuffs and collars became yellow, cuff flaps d.green. The turnbacks and shoulder straps were red, with the unit numbers,58 listed in the chart above, embroidered in white on the straps. The red became madder August 17, 1808.

Woodwork

RegimentWoodwork
Zhelezinskwhite
Tara (later Tomsk)white
Kamenets-Podolskblack
Penzawhite
Vilnablack
Vologdablack or white
Vyatkablack
Yekaterinoslavwhite
Sveaborgcoffee
When the combined regiments were split up, the woodwork reverted to (in practice likely remained in) the 1798 colors.

The 1800 pattern flag was issued to all combined regiments, except the 4 battalion Moskow, Kronstadt, and Riga garrison regiments (as well as the independent Kamchatka and Balaklava battalions). The flag staff was issued in brown, i.e. coffee, and remained so. The other woodwork may have changed to conform.59

New units possibly took black or white.38

After December 17, 1808, Decree 23,382 specified coffee for new units.

Battalion and Company Colors21

Independent Battalion Pompon & Swordknots

batt. Pompon
(ex: Tver)
1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. 4th coy.

2-batt. Regiment Pompon & Swordknots

batt. Pompon
(ex: Tobolsk)
1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. 4th coy.
1st
2d

3-batt. Pompon & Swordknots

batt. Pompon
(ex: Rochensalm)
1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. 4th coy.
1st
2d
3d
 
NCO

4-batt. Pompon & Swordknots

batt. Pompon
(ex: Moscow)
1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. 4th coy.
1st
2d
3d
4th

The nut and ruff of the swordknot were in company colors; The body in battalion color, which varied depending upon how many battalions were in the regiment.
NCO's swordknot were the same, but with a different ruff including black and orange yarns, and the interior fringe threads were orange and black.

Invalid companies had a white swordknot.

The center of the pompon took the color of the regiment (or l.green where clashing). The outside of the pompon took battalion color, which varied depending upon how many battalions were in the regiment.

On December 15, 1809 garrison units took new pompons. Later, the Moscow Garrison, briefly 6 battalions due to the absorption of Veliki Ustyug and Vologda, was given a new sequence. The reforms of 1810-11 did not affect the garrisons.

Garrison Pompons - December 15, 1809

BattalionRegiment's battalions
1st2d3d4th

Moscow Garrison Pompons - October 9, 1811

Battalion
1st2d3d4th5th6th



Internal Guard

Internal Guard Regiments May 11, 181161

Shoulder strapsBatt.District
12345678
1st Brigade1stPetrozavodsk ½b.Tver ½b.Kaluga ½b.Tula ½b.Kursk ½b.Yekaterinoslav ½b.Vologda ½b.Ryazan ½b.
2dKuopio ½b.Pskov ½b.Smolensk ½b.Orel ½b.Kharkov ½b.Taurida batt.Yaroslavl ½b.Tambov ½b.
3dViborg ½b.Mogilev ½b.Chernigov ½b.Poltava ½b.Kherson batt.Kostroma ½b.
2d Brigade1stSt. Petersburg ½b.Vitebsk ½b.Minsk ½b.Grodno ½b.Kiev ½b.Kamenets-Podolsky ½b.Vyatka batt.Penza ½b.
2dNovgorod ½b.Mitau ½b.Vilna ½b.Bialystok ½b.Zhitomir ½b.Ternopol ½b.Perm ½b.Saratov ½b.
3d Brigade1stReval ½b.Nizhni Novgorod ½b.Simbirsk batt.
2dRiga ½b.Vladimir ½b.Ufa batt.
3dMoscow batt.
(Mar. 23, 1813)
4th Brigade1stVoronezh ½b.
2dGeorgiyevsk ½b.


Internal Guard - battalion distinctions

Battalion1st2d3d
pompon
officer's
cuff patch
d.greend.green,
piped yellow
yellow

Details

Shoulder strap markings

District numbers were formed of red cord on the yellow straps, and yellow cord on the rest.

Woodwork

Coffee.


Divisional period

Transition

A new scheme for the Line was adopted November 19, 1807 that lasted through the fall of Paris. Collars and cuffs were red, cuff flaps d.green, and shoulder straps were in order of seniority within each division, with the number of the division couched on the strap. The collars and shoulder straps on the greatcoat followed, but madder fabric was substituted for red. On January 1, 1810 this was applied to the lining of the coat tails as well, except for the 1st Division.62

The new scheme was supposed to go into effect in 1808, but since issues about seniority had not been worked out, the Inspection era facings remained in service until the next year. The only regiment raised during this time, Bialystok63, was formed as the 5th regiment of the 9th division.

The Jaegers64 went through a similar transition. The coat was changed from l.green to d.green. On January 4, 1808, the senior regiment of each division took red shoulder straps, and any junior took azure. On May 19, 1808 the collars became white red piped, cuffs red, cuff flaps d.green, and pants piping red. By February 25, 1809, the collars, cuffs, and cuff flaps were d.green red piped. Finally, on July 20, 1809 the red shoulder straps switched to yellow.

While facings were quickly changed, and clothing renewed every two years, equipment was often used to term before a new pattern was adopted. Many of the transitional changes were not completed until 1812. In particular, the Caucasus forces - the 19th and 20th Divisions - seem to have kept the old uniforms and equipment right up until 1812.

Woodwork

Remained the same. But for new units, Decree 23,382 of December 17, 1808 specified a sequence of yellow, black, white, yellow, and black woodwork for up to five regiments in a division.59

Battalion and Company Colors

The Grenadiers, Musketeers - later Infantry, Jaegers, and later Marines were reorganized Each regiment consisted of three battalions of 1 grenadier and 3 ordinary companies. The grenadier company was formed of a grenadier platoon which deployed on the right, and a sharpshooter platoon which deployed on the left. The 1st and 3d battalions were field units, the 2d was a depot, but its grenadier company was detached and combined into 3 company combined grenadier battalions, and the remaining battalion was pressed into service in 1812. As before, the Leib-grenadier were all grenadiers, although they took company distinctions.

During 1811 modifications were made to accommodate the new grenadier companies. The grenadier and sharpshooter platoons received their own patterns, while the center companies retained the 1809 pattern. Swordknots remained as before, except that the grenadier company took the red based pattern previously used by the 4th companies in the battalions. The fatigue cap has a band in regiment color, piped above with company color, while the crown was piped with battalion color.

Reorganization Infantry Pompons60 & Swordknots21

battalion Pompon
(center coys)
1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. Pompon
(grenadier plt.)
Gren. coy. Pompon
(sharpshooter plt.)
first
second
third
NCO c. 1813

The nut and ruff of the swordknot were in company colors; The body in battalion color.
NCO's swordknot were the same, but with a different ruff including black and orange yarns, and the interior fringe threads were orange and black.

Forage Caps

Grenadiers and Infantry
battalion gren. plt. 1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. shsh. plt.
first 1.Р. 2.Р. 3.Р.
second 4.Р. 5.Р. 6.Р.
third 7.Р. 8.Р. 9.Р.
Jaegers & Marines
battalion gren. plt. 1st coy. 2d coy. 3d coy. shsh. plt.
first 1.Р. 2.Р. 3.Р.
second 4.Р. 5.Р. 6.Р.
third 7.Р. 8.Р. 9.Р.


Infantry Regiments January 21, 1810

Shoulder straps (red cord on yellow and white, yellow cord others)
Divredwhiteyellowd.green,
piped red
azurebisque
1Leib-grenadier26,27Kexholm
2St. Petersburg
Gr.
Pavlovsk Gr.Yelets
1st27
PolotskLithuania
3Taurida Gr.27ChernigovMurom
20th
Koporye21st
4TobolskVolhyniaVilna
4th
KremenchugMinsk
5PermSievskMogilev
23d
Kaluga24th
6AzovUglichNisov
3d
RevalSofiya
35th
7Yekaterinoslav
Gr.
PskovMoscow
5th
VladimirPodolia
8Moscow Gr.27ArchangelSchlüsselburg
7th
VoronezhOld
Ingermanland
9Astrakhan Gr.27RyazhskUkraine
10th
GalichBialystok
10Kiev Gr.27YaroslavlBryansk
8th
KurskCrimea
11Siberia Gr.Little Russia
Gr.27
Nasheburg
11th
ApsheronOdessa
12Phanagoria Gr.SmolenskNarva
6th
OrelNew
Ingermanland
13Nizhni
Novgorod
LadogaAleksopol
12th
ButyrkiPoltava
22d
Estonia
14C. Arakcheyev
Gr.
TulaTenginka
25th
Navaginka26th
15VitebskKozlovKolyvan
14th
Kura13th
16NovgorodNyslottOkhotsk
27th
KamchatkaMingrelia
17RyazanBelozerskBrest
30th
Villmandstrand31st
18TambovDnieperKostroma
28th
Yakutsk32d
19KazanSuzdalBelev
16th
SevastopolVologda
17th
20Kherson Gr.Georgia Gr.Troitsk
15th
TiflisKabarda
9th
Saratov
21Velikiye LukiNevaPetrovsk
2d
LibauPernau
22ViborgVyatkaStary Oskol
29th
OlonetsPenza
23RylskYekaterinburg
24Selenginsk18th
25ShirvanUfaTomsk
19th

Infantry Regiments April 24, 1812

Shoulder straps (red cord on yellow and white, yellow cord others)66
Divredwhiteyellowd.green,
piped red
azure
3ChernigovMuromReval
20th
Selenginsk67 21st
4TobolskVolhyniaKremenchug
4th
Minsk34th
5PermSievskMogilev
23d
Kaluga24th
6AzovUglich72Nizov
3d
Bryansk35th72
7PskovMoscowLibau
11th
Sofiya36th
8ArchangelSchlüsselburgOld Ingermanland
7th
Ukraine37th
9NasheburgApsheronRyazhsk
10th
Yakutsk38th
10YaroslavlKurskCrimea
8th
Bialystok39th
1172KexholmYeletsPolotsk
1st27
Pernau33d
12SmolenskNarvaAleksopol
6th
New
Ingermanland
41st
13Velikiye LukiSaratovGalich
12th
Penza7222d
14TulaTenginkaNavaginka
25th
Estonia26th
15VitebskKozlovKolyvan
13th
Kura14th
16NyslottOkhotskKamchatka
27th
Mingrelia43d
17RyazanBelozerskBrest
30th
Villmandstrand48th
18VladimirTambovDnieper
28th
Kostroma32d
19KazanSuzdalBelev
16th
SevastopolVologda
17th
2068TroitskTiflisKabarda
9th
15th
21NevaPetrovskLithuania
2d
Podolia44th
22ViborgVyatkaStary Oskol
29th
Olonets45th
2372RylskYekaterinburgKoporye67
18th
46th68
24ShirvanButyrkiUfa
19th
Tomsk40th
25Voronezh 69
1st Marine
2d Marine3d Marine
31st
47th
26Nizhni NovgorodLadogaPoltava
5th
Orel42d
2759OdessaVilnaTernopol70
49th71
Simbirsk50th
28724th Marine

The 'kiver'

The straw and cloth headdress of 1803 proved flimsy during the early campaigns. The Russians designed a felt and leather replacement, modeled after captured French examples, which they called the кивер - 'kiver'.

The legendary 1812 kiver

The short-lived '1812 kiver' with its distinctive saddle-shaped concave crown, is iconically associated with the victorious Russian troops who drove the Grande Armée from Moscow to Paris in a year and a half. But it is legendary in another way, in that what we know about it has been transmitted by tradition. The art includes: eyewitness sketches from 1812 by Chicherin and Faber du Faur, a number of sketches from 1813 by German observers, Klein's post-war precise draftsmanship, and decades later romantic oils like that of Carl F. Schultz. Supposedly it inspired the examples of 'kiver-style' hats worn by various states found in art and as relics.

But, no document has been unearthed offering plans, giving descriptions, or recording distribution. Nor, apparently, has a relic survived. With such little evidence to work with, the subject is rife with speculation. Viskovatov, careful to note he was working with veteran's memories, suggests a general distribution before the French invasion. It is a guess educated by access to people, graphics, and artifacts lost to us. But he seems unaware of the distribution of prototypes to the regiments in 1809-10.

The development of these prototypes has been covered by Alekhin & Ulyanov and further refined by Leonov, Popov, & Kibovsky. The latter hypothesize, rather hastily, that the legend is largely the result of artists misinterpreting misshapen shakos. Leonv backed away from that explanation when presenting the subject on line. Instead he suggests that they were acquired in Germany in 1813 when the original issue reached term, along with the arrival of many new recruits requiring supply. Away from Tsarist bureaucracy, the regiments could indulge in the fashionable style already in use by officers who purchased their own dress, and perhaps already popular in Europe.

This is more plausible, but there is no compelling reason to chose one narrative over another. It seems that during 1812-14 some Russian units fought in a shako with a saddle-shaped crown. Who and when may never be known, even with further research, much like the miter at Austerlitz.

The prototypes

Leonov, Popov, & Kibovsky describe the result for the 1st Division (Leib-garde, Leib-grenadier, and Kexholm) as a low - about 3⅞ vershoks tall - rapidly broadening to at least a 5½ vershok diameter top - from a typical hat band of about 4 vershoks. Furthermore, the rising sides were not straight, but flared outwards. This model included both earflaps and a neck shade. A similar, but less flamboyant, model was specified for the line. About 5 vershoks diameter at the top with straight and not flaring sides, and only a neck shade not earflaps. Prototypes were sent to the line regiments as models for local crafting, and this was done late 1809 and into 1810. The regimental workshops also supplemented the manufacture of the L-g. allotment, and this may have resulted in some line regiments using the L-g. pattern.

The Leib-garde

Leonov, Popov, & Kibovsky note that upon the return of the Leib-garde from occupation, the Tsar complained about the concave crowns of the officer's kivers as opposed to the troop. This is consistent with Chicherin's sketch (presumably of his regiment the L-g. Semyonovskoye) at a review in Vilna Jan. 4, 1813. An officer in a distinctly concave shako stands in front of troops in decidedly flat crowned hats. It seems likely that the L-g. troop generally wore the regulation shako.

The chinscales

Ulyanov says they were slowly distributed to first the Grenadiers, then the Infantry, and finally the Jaegers. Mishanin says they were not authorized for the Jaegers. Leonov, Popov, & Kibovsky say they were permitted only for the 1st Division, and private acquisition was actively suppressed.

The badge

See note74.

The plume

Upon the return of the Leib-garde from occupation, the Tsar also noted the tendency for plumes to be droopy. This can be found in some of the art as well.

The pompon

At some point, the pompon went from a yarn construction to fabric, and when this happened, the NCOs took white and gray quarters. Leonov, Popov, & Kibovsky find no mention of a wooden form before 1817 and believe the pompon was simply a stuffed cloth packet. They have discovered an inventory record from a depot in Germany late 1813 with gray cloth for the NCOs.

The cover

A member of the L-g. Semyonovskoye mentions shako cover, facilitated by the removable pompon used by the L-g. Apparently some other regiments used ad hoc or captured covers before the official adoption in 1817.

Arms and Equipment73

Ulyanov offers the following information about the musket carried by the regiments.
Russian pattern 1808
L-g. Preobrazhenskoye L-g. Semyonovskoye L-g. Izmailova L-g. Lithuania L-g. Jaeger
C. Arakcheyev Gr. Leib-grenadier Pavlovsk Gr. St. Petersburg Gr. Taurida Gr. Yekaterinoslav Gr.
Belozersk Brest Crimea Kaluga Kamchatka Kazan
Kexholm Kozlov Kremenchug Minsk Mogilev Moscow
Neva Nizov Okhotsk Perm Pernau Petrovsk
Polotsk Pskov Ryazan Rylsk Schlüsselburg Selenginsk
Sevastopol Tobolsk Ufa Uglich Yekaterinburg Yelets
1st Jaeger 4th Jaeger 18th Jaeger 23d Jaeger 24th Jaeger 30th Jaeger
33th Jaeger 34th Jaeger 35th Jaeger 38th Jaeger 39th Jaeger 46th Jaeger
48th Jaeger
English 'Brown Bess'
Astrakhan Gr. Kiev Gr. Little Russia Gr. Moscow Gr. Phanagoria Gr. Siberia Gr.
Archangel Azov Chernigov Estonia Koporye
Murom Navaginka Old Ingermanland Reval Schlüsselburg Stary Oskol
Tenginka Tula Vladimir Volhynia Voronezh Yakutsk
3d Jaeger 5th Jaeger 20th Jaeger 21st Jaeger 25th Jaeger 26th Jaeger
36th Jaeger 37th Jaeger 40th Jaeger
Austrian
Mingrelia Orel Sofiya
Retooled Swedish
31st Jaeger

Leatherwork was provided by the Russians.

Maj. Gen. Paskevich, chief of the Orel, reported that the regiment collected enough French muskets after the initial clash at Smolensk to replace the poor weapons they had.

As described by Viskovatov, a certain number of rifles were issued to the foot regiments. The numbers assigned to Grenadier and Musketeer regiments are recapped under Service Distinctions. Twelve men in each company, and the (presumably all) NCOs in the Jaegers also received rifles. This ceased in 1808 (and thus would not apply to the 33d and later regiments), but it appears they were not withdrawn.76 Parkhayev illustrates a jaeger with a rifle and dirk hung on the standard kit in 1812.

The 33d to 46th Jaegers were converted from musketeer regiments. They soon received new uniforms, but continued to use musketeer pattern equipment (crossbelts, musket sling & lock cover, and drums) through their term. They did received brass regimental number badges, manufactured in 1811. The 39th and 43d converted their equipment in 1811, and the 46th was scheduled for 1814. The 47th and 48th, raised from garrison regiments, presumably retained garrison pattern equipment for some time. The newly raised 49th and 50th were given jaeger equipment. Ulyanov indicates that the 38th and 47th received jaeger pattern equipment.

The waistbelt bandoleer or front pouch of the Jaegers was gradually replaced by the bag on crossbelt starting the next year as each regiment met its term. In 1811 any remaining old models, including the front pouches of Grenadier and Musketeer NCOs, were replaced by the bag.

The square pack slowly replaced the cylindrical valise till 1812, and even then was sometimes used by non-combatants.

Ulyanov suggests the units converted converted from garrisons Jan. 29, 1811 retained their garrison greatcoats.

Pants

The new style of pants introduced at the end of 1807 were closed at the calf with a long row of buttons. Although Viskovatov is a little vague about this, the summer version was white Flemish linen for all unmounted troops. Only the snow pants might be gray or green. Viskovatov mentions 7 buttons on the Leib-garde winter pants, increasing to 9 in 1812. Leonov, Popov, & Kibovsky say the 1812 change was canceled. Gabayev states 9 on the winter pair and 11 on the summer version. Ulyanov, who relies on Gabayev with corrections, says 7 on the winter pants and 7-9 on the summer. Winter ran from Nov. 13 to March 12, although it is unclear if date or conditions determined dress.

Mishanin, discussing jaegers, notes widespread use of unofficial bloomers made of various light cloths worn over the pants in the Foreign Campaign, 1813-4. Proof being the repeated orders not to wear them!


Service Distinctions

Grenadiers were distinguished by their headgear and pouch badges. Initially, they wore the grenadier miters and their cartridge pouch displayed grenades in the four corners, as well as the oval double-eagle plaque. Fusiliers wore the fusilier miter.

In addition, four corporals in each grenadier company were armed with a rifle and belly pouch. This was adopted by fusiliers and musketeers on February 7, 1805, then all were re-armed with muskets on September 10, 1809. However, they retained the front pouch, which was not replaced until 1811. Fifers, two per company, were also unique to the grenadiers.

With the introduction of the shako, grenadiers and fusiliers flaunted the plume, while grenadiers alone displayed the grenade badge on the hat. When the grenade badge was adopted by all, the grenadiers were accorded the 3-flame version.

After the reorganization and the unification of the dress of the grenadiers, infantry, marines, and jaegers, these distinctions remained in place. Grenadiers carried the 3-flame grenade on hat and pouch,74 and grenadiers and fusiliers wore the plume. However, the plume was withdrawn from the sharpshooters, except for those in the Grenadier Regiments.

All members of the Leib-grenadier were considered grenadiers throughout the period.75

To recap, all ranks of the Grenadier Regiments and all grenadier platoons wore the plume. All grenadier companies used the 3-flame grenade badge.74

Jaegers were styled similarly with some notable differences. Jaeger cartridge pouches displayed the regiment's number rather than the grenade. Jaeger privates (incl. L-g.) had carried just a bayonet or dirk until only the grenadier company received swords, along with the drummers and NCOs including the musicians and non-combatants.76 Because the bayonet was kept fixed, this meant the crossbelt supported only an empty scabbard for the others, and Mishanin notes it was therefore sometimes discarded.

Around 1809, drummers started attaching grenade badges to the drum sling, emulating the L-g. Grenadiers used 3 single flamed grenade badges, rather than a three flamed version.

The band and regimental drummer wore grenadier distinctions, and belonged to the first battalion. The other two battalion drummers used musketeer or fusilier distinctions, presumably a hold over from the original organization. The grenadier platoon included 2 of the 3 company drummers and a fifer, the sharpshooter platoon included the remaining drummer and fifer.

Finally there is the question of the officer's shako. Viskovatov does state that officers of the Grenadier regiments were entitled to a gilded 3-flame grenade badge and plume. Probably, all officers of the Infantry and, later, Jaeger regiments used a gilt single flamed grenade and lacked plume.77 The rear cord hook was part of the L-g. prototype, but was canceled by Grand Duke Constantine.78


Awards

Trumpets were awarded in pairs during the period, previously the number is uncertain.

RegimentMarch musicTrumpetsShako badgeFlagPromotion
Silver
trumpets
St. GeorgeSt. AndrewPlainSt. George
Leib-grenadier1760L-g. Grenadier
1813 Apr. 25
Astrakhan Gren.1814 Apr. 14
C. Arakcheyev Gren.1813 Dec. 121813 Apr. 25
Georgia Gren.1812 May 17
Kiev Gren.17601814 Apr. 141807 Nov. 27
Little Russian Gren.17601814 June 11
Moscow Gren.1810 Sept. 301814 Dec. 251800 Mar. 18
Pavlovsk Gren.L-g. Pavlovsk
1813 Apr. 25
Phanagoria Gren.1810 Sept. 30
St. Petersburg Gren.1815 Aug. 31
Siberia Gren.1814 Apr. 14
Taurida Gren.1815 Aug. 311800 Apr. 11
Yekaterinoslav Gren.1813 Dec. 12
Aleksopol1813 Apr. 25